Proposing ”Learning by Conscience” As A New Method of Internalization in Learning: An Application of John Dewey's Thinking Paradigm

Saifullah Idris, Unlike the learning models that originate from John Dewey’s concept of reflective thinking, such as collaborative learning, cooperative learning, competitive learning, learning by doing, and investigative group learning, the learning by conscience model proposed in this study, instead, is derived from John Dewey’s concept of reflective attitudes. It seeks to introduce a new learning model which is based on the hermeneutic approach while also employing various means of investigation such as descriptive, analytic, and eclectic methods. The study found that there are three variables that correspond to the concept of John Dewey’s reflective attitudes: open-mindedness, whole-heartedness, and responsibility. The study also found that there are four stages of internalization process that must be considered in order to make learning more effective, which include impulse, experience, communication, and action. From the explanation, it is clear that "learning by conscience" is based on " John Dewey’s reflective attitude," instead of "John Dewey’s reflective thinking." reflective attitude is more important than reflective thinking, as reflective attitude will bring learners towards affective learning, not just stuck on cognitive learning. Cognitive learning is necessary in educational process, the indicator can be seen directly, but in contrast with the affective learning, the indicator is difficult to be seen more quickly, because its success indicator requires a long time, takes patience and sometimes personal indicator. Thus, learning by conscience becomes a new paradigm in the internalization of learning in education.